When cancer develops in the esophagus, it is esophageal cancer. The location of the esophagus is between your throat and stomach. It helps in the movement of the swallowed food to the stomach from the back of your throat. The digestion process takes place there. The lining of the esophagus, which is made up of cells, is the area where esophageal cancer develops. It leads to numerous deaths all over the world.


Esophageal cancer has a number of symptoms. Some of them are:

  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Pressure, pain or a burning sensation in the chest
  • Hoarseness in the voice
  • Coughing
  • Heartburn or indigestion

You should consult an oncologist in Kolkata if you have any of these symptoms.


The doctor classifies esophageal cancer according to the cell types involved. The type of cancer also helps the doctor to determine the treatment option.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: The thin, flat cells that line the surface of the esophagus are the squamous cells. The middle and upper portions of the esophagus are the areas where squamous cell carcinoma occurs.

  • Adenocarcinoma: The cells present in the mucus-secreting glands in the esophagus are first affected by adenocarcinoma. In the lower portion of the esophagus, adenocarcinoma normally develops.

  • Other rare types: Sarcoma, lymphoma, small cell carcinoma, choriocarcinoma and melanoma are some other rare types of esophageal cancer.


Your doctor suggests the following diagnostic tests for esophageal cancer:

  • Endoscopy: Your doctor moves a flexible tube with a video camera down your throat into your esophagus. He/she looks for areas of irritation or cancer in your esophagus with the help of the endoscope.

  • Biopsy: The doctor moves a special scope down your throat into your esophagus. He/she collects a suspicious tissue sample with the help of the scope. The doctor then sends the tissue sample for the detection of cancer cells.


An important treatment option for esophageal cancer is esophagectomy.

Open Esophagectomy

Depending on the cancer stage, the surgical oncologist removes the full esophagus or a part of it. He makes cuts in the abdomen, chest or neck during this procedure.

Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

During the surgery, you will be asleep under the effect of general anaesthesia. The laparoscopic surgeon in Kolkata makes a few small incisions (cuts) in your upper abdomen, chest or lower neck. He/she then inserts a laparoscope through an incision in the abdomen. There are light and camera at the end of the scope. The camera projects images of the total area on a monitor situated in the operating room. The surgeon inserts surgical tools through the rest of the incisions and removes the esophagus partly or fully. It depends on the severity of the disease. The surgeon gets help from the images during the surgery.

If you want the best results from this surgery, you should contact Dr. Sumanta Dey. He has many years of experience in laparoscopic surgery. A lot of patients have got benefits from his treatment.