When there is a mixture of calcium salts, cholesterol and bile pigment in the gallbladder, it often leads to the formation of gallstones (biliary calculi). It is common in many people. When the stones block ducts and cause complications, you must seek medical help. These complications include infections or inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). There can be the surgical removal of the gallbladder if necessary. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open surgery are the different techniques used. A laparoscopic surgeon in Kolkata makes small incisions (cuts) during laparoscopic surgery.

Risk factors for gallstones

There are several factors that increase the risk of gallstone. These include:

  • Being age 40 or older
  • Being female
  • Being a Mexican American
  • Being a Native American
  • Being pregnant
  • Females of reproductive age
  • Having diabetes
  • Having hemolytic anaemia or any other blood disorder
  • Having diabetes mellitus
  • Being obese
  • Fast weight loss

Complications that arise due to gallstones

There can be the following complications if you have gallstones:

  • Chronic cholecystitis
  • Acute cholecystitis
  • Acute cholangitis
  • Choledocholithiasis
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Empyema in gallbladder
  • Obstructive jaundice
  • Gallbladder perforation
  • Choledochoduodenal fistula

Types of gallstones

  • Cholesterol stones: Cholesterol is the main cause behind the forming of these stones.

  • Mixed stones: Cholesterol and salts play the main role behind the formation of these stones.

  • Pigment stones: Due to the presence of pigments, the colour of bile is greenish-brown. Some gallstones are formed from these bile pigments.

Surgery as a treatment option for gallstones

The doctor suggests surgery in most cases of gallstones. He/she removes the entire gallbladder (cholecystectomy) with all the stones. There are two surgical procedures:

  • Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This surgery is also known as keyhole surgery. In this procedure, the surgeon inserts special surgical instruments through multiple small incisions (cuts) in this procedure.

  • Open Cholecystectomy: The surgeon makes a wider incision (cut) in the abdomen in order to reach the gallbladder in this procedure. If a patient is not fit for Laparoscopy then open surgery is done.


Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Indications for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Cholelithiasis Conditions unrelated to Gallbladder Disease
Asymptomatic Cholelithiasis

No indication except

Immunosuppression Porcelain Gallbladder with Gallstones-Risk of CA

Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis
Symptomatic Cholelithiasis

Biliary colic and Cholecystitis


Biliary Dyskinesia

(dec EF on HIDA scan)

Complicated Cholelithiasis

Gallstone pancreatitis close to discharge

Choledocholithiasis with Cholangitis after the Cholangitis is resolved (pre-Op ERCP is a prerequisite)

Polyps, Cholesterosis and Adenomyomatosis

(Size > 1 cm)



The doctor will examine your medical history and perform a physical checkup to know your health condition. He/she will ask about the medicines that you are taking and may ask you to stop some medicines if needed.

The procedure

In your abdominal area, the best laparoscopic surgeon in Kolkata makes a few small incisions in order to pass the surgical instruments through them. He/she blows a stream of carbon dioxide with the help of a tube. The abdominal wall gets separated from the underlying organs as a result of this. A laparoscope that has an attached camera is also inserted in your body through one of the cuts. The camera sends images of the gallbladder to a monitor kept in the operation theatre. The images guide the surgeon properly while he/she performs the surgery. The surgeon removes the gallbladder along with the stones by the surgical instruments. After the surgery is complete, he/she removes the instruments from the inside of your body. The incisions are closed with the help of stitches and covered with dressings. You will soon be released from the hospital and can resume your regular activities within a few days. There will be smaller scars in your skin and you will feel very little pain.

Open Gallbladder Surgery

In comparison to laparoscopic surgery in Kolkata, the surgeon makes a single large incision to get to the gallbladder in this procedure. Through this cut, he/she removes the gallbladder itself.